Treatment of TD
TD is defined as three or more loose stools in 24 hours affects about 40% of travellers to ‘high risk’ areas such as Africa, Asia and South America . Even though symptoms usually only last for about two to three days, it can bring a high level of inconvenience, disrupting vacations and business trips especially if it is accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea, fever and vomiting.
In addition, in children and the elderly one should be aware of dehydrations, which can lead to serious complications. Most cases of TD are caused by bacteria. Overall, the most common pathogen is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, followed by Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp., and Salmonella spp. . Although most cases resolve without treatment over several days, in about 10% the symptoms persist for more than a week, and in about 2% for more than a month.
Treatment usually focusses on the prevention of dehydration, reduce the severity and duration of symptoms, and prevent interruption to planned activities. For this purpose oral hydration solution (ORS), Bismuth subsalicylate and loperamide are widely used.